Friday, July 24, 2020
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Friday, May 22, 2020
November 12, 2013 MAHG 5028 Religion and Genocide: Rittner Conversation Starter #12 Rwandan Genocide The Angels Have Left Us by Hugh McCullum, discusses the African tragedy that took place in Rwanda, which resulted in the murder of over one million victims. The Rwanda genocide was between two groups, the Hutu and the Tutsi. Hutu were considered to be the natives and indigenous to the land, where Tutsi were considered to be the non-native settlers who were non indigenous. Through propaganda and myth, the tension of ethnic hatred would slowly crumble the Rwandan State. The Rwandan military distributed weapons with the funding from the French. On April 6, 1994, Rwandan president Juvenal HabyarimanÃ¢â¬â¢s plane was shot down andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Road blocks where ID cards could be checked were large killing sights. Bodies of Tutsi, Hutu, and Tutsi sympathizers could be seen left in large piles on the side of the road, scattered throughout the streets, and inside homes and churches. Many victims fled to hospitals, schools, and churches in hopes of sanctuar y, but for many they became their tombs. Rwanda Prime Minister Faustin Twagiramungo stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We have the same language, the same religions. There is no song or dance or drum-beat that is peculiar to one or the other of our people. We had disputed before the colonial period over things like land-ownership, and sometimes there were little fights, but the chiefs dealt with it in the traditional way and never did we suffer destruction like we have just experiencedÃ¢â¬ (1). The racist theories of earlier colonizers tried to differentiate the two groups based on physical appearances. Belgians considered Tutsi to be more European and were given educational advantages. Hutu were excluded from all levels of power and left as a minority position. These disadvantages along with the nations poverty, over population from refugees, land pressures, and ecological degradation would rage the extremists and fuel their hatred. Rebels (interahamwe) and Hutu extremists hunted Tutsi. The propag anda was fed through the Radio stations giving Hutu ideas of how to find, capture, and kill Tutsi. Hutu rebels called the Tutsi minority cockroaches and felt it wasShow MoreRelatedThe Genocide Of Rwanda Genocide2044 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages It is estimated and recorded that, the 1994 Rwanda genocide, resulted to over 800,000 to a million deaths of the Tutsis that where brutally eliminated and murdered. This figure includes men, women and children who constitute three-quarter of the entire Tutsi population and 20% of Rwanda population at large. Rwanda Genocide generated a lot of criticism especially the role of France, the lip service attitude that resulted to the late intervention of the international community after the endRead MoreThe Genocide in Rwanda 1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPaul Kagame, the President of Rwanda, once quoted that, Ã¢â¬Å"When we are unified, working together, no challenge is insurmountableÃ¢â¬ (Arnlaugsdottir). His quote holds meaning and truth as wi thin the past twenty years, Rwanda has worked miraculously to rebuild and reunite the country that was left disheveled by social conflict and genocide. There are many factors that have contributed to the reconstruction of Rwanda, including international assistance, gacaca courts and International Criminal TribunalRead MoreThe Rwanda Genocide808 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesApril 7, 1994 marked the beginning of one hundred days of massacre that left over 800,000 thousand dead and Rwanda divided by a scare that to this day they are trying to heal. The source of this internal struggle can be traced back to the segregation and favoritism established by Belgium when they received Rwanda after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1918. At the time the Rwandan population was 14% Tutsi, 1%Twa, and 85% Hutus; the BelgianÃ¢â¬â¢s showed preferential treatment to the Tutsi, whoRead MoreThe Genocide Of Rwanda s Genocide1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Genocide in Rwanda INTRODUCTION Genocides happen when ethnic divisions become apparent. Many times, these ethnic divisions were due to colonization from people of different race. These cases are especially true in Africa when Europeans colonized their territory, with clear racial divisions between them (Gavin). These genocides go on because of nations acting on ignorance and refusing to help out the nations in turmoil, allowing the genocides to continue, without wasting their own resources.Read MoreThe Genocide Of The Rwanda Essay2065 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages In 1994, Rwanda was a situation of hatred and revenge tailored by European influence that mixed together to form the recipe for Genocide. Classical control of third world nations and exploitation by the west is nothing new. In Africa, the direction of the government is often manipulated by countries that have had historical control over them. The Genocide of Rwanda was a transfer of position that placed the Hutu people in a seat of power over the former ruler s, which were the Tutsis elite. ThisRead MoreThe Rwanda Genocide Essay1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe characteristics of the Rwanda Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust. The Rwanda Genocide targeted the Tutsis because of their ethnicity, while the Holocaust targeted the Jews because of their ethnicity and religion. To really understand the Rwandan Genocide and the Final Solution, one must understand the background of the two exterminated peoples. The Tutsis are an ethnic group that resides in the African Great Lakes region. During the Europeans settlements in Rwanda, the colonists need an identifierRead MoreThe Holocaust And The Rwanda Genocide1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe mind of a survivor of genocide can be various, violent, confused, or blank, it can scar the mind indefinitely or not. Not only are the conductors of the kill-spree are scary, but even the victims can be just as terrifying. Two examples of genocide are the Holocaust and the Rwanda Genocide, both of which gives off long ranges of psychological effects on the mind of those who survive. Survivors struggle through the tragic events with the hope they would soon find and be with their loved ones. SoRead MoreChristianity and Genocide in Rwanda800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda by Timothy Longman discusse s the roles of the churches in Rwanda and how their influence might have been able to alter the outcome of the genocide. He discusses the rise of Juvenal Habyarimana in politics with his Catholic background, church and state relations, and obedience to political authority. His slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Peace, Unity, and DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ were his political plans for Rwanda. On April 6, 1994, president Juvenal HabyarimanaÃ¢â¬â¢s plane was shot down marking the beginningRead MoreHistory Of Rwanda And The Genocide1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHISTORY OF RWANDA AND THE GENOCIDE It is believed that the Hutu and the Tutsi were originally one community who shared some value culture and even religion until the colonialist announced their arrival. Rwanda has experienced a disturbing and prolonged cycle of violent conflict since 1959. The conflict which has been characteristically political and socio-economic in nature has played out mainly on the basis of ethnicity and regionalism. It was first German and Belgium colonialism that createdRead MoreGenocide in Rwanda Essay1910 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesGenocide is Ã¢â¬Å"the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural groupÃ¢â¬ . In Rwanda for example, the Hutu-led government embraced a new program that called for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approxi mately 800,000 innocent people that even included
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Communication in Social Work Practice - Essay From Social Work Ireland Jump to: navigation, search 1 Social Work Theory amp; Practice. The Importance of Communication Skills in Social Work Practice. Introduction. Social work is a professional activity. Implicit in its practice are ethical principles, which prescribe the professional responsibility of the social worker. The primary objective of the code of ethics is to make implicit principles explicit for the protection of clients. (BASW, 1976). According to Thompson (2000) Social work involves working with some of the most disadvantaged sections of the community and with people who, for a variety of reasons, are experiencing major problems and distress, often with unmet needs and otherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because of the often-sensitive nature of 5 situations social workers can find themselves in, the ability to be patient and understanding is important. Working with children and families is one of the largest areas covered by social work. Insofar as a social worker may be dealing with an individual client, that clientÃ¢ â¬â¢s place in the family can be of critical importance to any assessment. When working with families it is important not to try to mirror oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas of how a family functions. The challenge for the social worker when working with a family is not to generalise but to try to understand Ã¢â¬Å"how does this family work?Ã¢â¬ Coulshed et al (1998,p171). When dealing with a family it is very important to remain impartial, to take the time to listen to everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. This approach is more likely to Ã¢â¬Å"encourage discussion and sharing in which the worker is free to engage and disengage when the need arises,Ã¢â¬ Coulshed et al (1998,p175). Another area which social workers are involved is with groups. This is somewhat different to the family situation. It also shares things in common with community work. The role of a social worker as a facilitator or leader of a group has many levels. At different stages the worker has to be Ã¢â¬Å"central, pivotal, pe ripheral, 6 and central once again,Ã¢â¬ Coulshed et al (1998,p198). The various stages of group development and the content of the stages outlined by Tuchman and Jensen, in Coulshed et alShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Policy On Client Populations From Diverse Backgrounds1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStart consists of mostly Hispanics and African Americans (C. Garrett, personal communication, September 9, 2015). Majority of the families served are low-income. There is also a large number of single-parent homes (C. Garrett, personal communication, September 9, 2015). The population served by Head Start are considered a vulnerable population based on economic and social disadvantages (C. Garrett, personal communication, September 9, 2015). B. As mentioned before Hispanics and African Americans areRead MoreThe Role Of An Adult Nurse1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Role of an Adult Nurse. In this Task, I will be analysing, explaining and describing the role of an Adult Nurse. Focusing on the responsibilities, qualities, code of Practice, their Differences between other non Ã¢â¬â professionals and their negative/positive approach to team work and supervision. 1.1 Analysis of an adult nurse. According to Oxford dictionaries.com, a nurse is Ã¢â¬Ëa person trained to care for the sick or infirm, especially in a hospital.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Oxford dictionaries.com accessed on 28.1.2015)Read MoreWorking Practices And Policies Affect Collaborative Working1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesworking practices and policies affect collaborative working (A.C.2.3) Organisational practices and policies: Current and relevant practices There are codes of practice and ethics for each profession such as the NMC codes for Nurses and midwives and the CQC for professionals working within the health and social care setting. There are also work place policies, practice and protocols applied which have come from legislations made by the government. This will allow each professional to work togetherRead Morenvq level 5 leadership and management in health and social care unit 11041 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Unit 1 Use and develop systems that promote communication (F/602/2335 1.Be able to address the range of communication requirements in own role 1.1 Review the range of groups and individuals whose communication needs must be addressed in own job role Being able to communicate effectively builds trust, respect, enhances learning and accomplishes goals. Within my job role the level of communication I have to uphold has to be one of paramount importance. Ã I have a role of great responsibilityRead MoreThe Importance Of Social Responsibility, Communication, And Teamwork1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will discuss the importance of social responsibility, communication, and teamwork in the workplace in particular as a nurse in the healthcare setting of general practice. By giving care to be proud of and being open, honest and approachable as well as working together as part of a team for the same outcome will benefit the patients. As a nurse in general practice the role includes a lot of involvement in the community. You become the face of the clinic and if you live in the same areaRead MoreThe Obstacles Of Direct Communication995 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat are the obstacles to direct communication? Why do social workers n eed to understand these? The obstacles of to direct communication is that the social worker has to be able to use direct communication and be able to be mindful of the clients feelings. For example I am a male, so when talking to a female ho has just been sexually assaulted I would be mindful of my words. A social worker needs to understand this because whatever they say to client has to be in a way the client can understandRead MoreUnderstanding Social Work Essay1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdescribe the roles and skills of social workers and how skills are developed through supervision and continuous professional development. The international definition of social work according to the BASW code of ethics is the social work profession is there to promote social change, Solving problems that occur in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Using theories of human Behaviour and social structures, social work interferes at the points whereRead MoreFactors That Affect The Workplace Of The Nursing Industry That Graduate Employees Should Have Achieved855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages148 This essay will present three integral factors of workplace citizenship in nursing industry that graduate employees should have achieved and discuss variety of skills for their desirable performance in future work. With the new technologies and high demanding on improvement of practices on nursing related field encouraged to graduate nursing students have certain attributes that would involve in their citizenship for current or future workplace. The term Ã¢â¬ËcitizenshipÃ¢â¬â¢ in nursing environment refersRead MoreSocial Media On The Work Place1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSOCIAL MEDIA IN THE WORK PLACE ABSTRACT: Social media is the most common technical tool which is being used by the complete society in recent days. In addition, it plays a paramount role in the business world to maintain a continuous and flexible contact with the company employees. Further, there are two types of social media sites which are enterprise social media site and the consumer social media site. Enterprise social media network is for private use and the consumer social media is availableRead MoreRelationship Between Diverse Cultures And Values1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION In the 21st century, diversity is an unavoidable phenomenon. A large percentage of work places, small or large, have become global villages with vast mixture in nationality, ethnicity, religious beliefs and sexual orientations of staff and clients. This allows for a mixture in opinions, modes of operation and ideas, however for these to truly be pros instead of cons, the organization has to apply measure to ensure that all individuals, regardless of their diversity can communicate with
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(99) " the administration in Khartoum has some implications to the concept of Responsibility to Protect\." Introduction From time being, a massive violation and abuse of the fundamental human rights exists. In the most recent era, the advent of the last three decades experienced a shift of these violations from the trendy inter-state conflicts to all forms of internal threats. Conversely, the last one hundred years has witnessed a sizeable increase in international collaboration and solidarity. We will write a custom essay sample on Humanitarian Response to Darfur Crisis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Human efforts to combat crime and engage in activities to promote human welfare and security have resulted in the conception of international organizations such as the UN and NATO. Subsequently, the 20th century has witness a massive contradiction trapped between humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation to contest all forms of threats associated with mankind and its apparent failure to effectively activate and execute its intended actions. More than ever, serious human right breach is still experienced in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. The Libya crisis which still dominates the headlines of every media is a notable example. While it evident that threats to humanity cuts across the globe, a pragmatic observation indicates that most of perpetrators of these crimes against humanity are mostly seen in the third world where dictatorship administration still exists (Thomas et al., 2002). While all sovereign states reserves the right to administer its territory, contemporary security issues might necessitate intervention by others at some point in-time for the welfare of humanity. With this in mind, several factors that make this view well contested still persist. Claiming that one can absolutely intervene in issues that threaten humanity will be approving of a subject that is not precisely limited and open to several interpretations. The concept of Responsibility to Protect challenges the states to protect not only its own people, but also, those people whose state have failed to protect. This essay particularly focuses on crises involving situations where the state has been accused of engaging in the act of genocide. A crime listed among the four crimes against humanity in the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. For a better insight, I will explore the case of Darfur and how the international community responded to it. This will enable a proper engagement with the debate on the Responsibility to Protect and Humanitarian Intervention taking into consideration the sovereignty of a state. Darfur: Background to the crisis For close to a decade, the world witnessed a horrified situation similar to that of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. About 4.2 million Darfuri civilians were victim of a bloody massacre, brutal rape and a direct displacement from their immediate homes (ICRtoP, 2010). The crisis which is believed to have its roots in a long term marginalization and neglect of the Furs, the Massalit, and the Zaghawa tribes by the successive governing regime from Khartoum was aggravated byDarfurÃ¢â¬â¢s segregation from the North-South regional peace process in 2003 (HCIDC, 2005, p:9). The cliche state of affairs to Darfur crisis is that of the marginalized group taking up arms in opposition to the government in Khartoum which was equally and fatally countered by the Arab militia in a bloody ethnic cleansing (Brosche, 2008, p:5). Undisputedly, the perpetrators of these atrocious acts are the Sudanese government-supported Janjaweed Military Group. With no form of over-estimation, at least 400,000 people have been murdered in the statistics presented by the Humanitarian Affairs Chapter of the United Nations (ICRtoP, 2010). Although the Sudanese government has been accused of master-minding a drive of ethnic cleansing by means of an alternative armed forces, yet, the international community of states having the ability to quell the unrest in the troubled Darfur region failed to take the lead in exemplifying actions that will protect the vulnerable civilians due to contradicting interest between geopolitical concerns and a deficient political motivation (ICRtoP, 2010). Without any prejudice, the Sudanese government blatantly overlooked the welfare of its people by failing in their Responsibility to Protect the Dafuris. In this situation, the Responsibility to Protect, though contested by different school of thoughts becomes an objective to be upheld by the international community of states if the rights and welfare of the agonized Dafuris has to be preserved. Certain theoretical perspective will possibly explain the behaviour of certain states and the international community. A general overview of realism and liberalism theory will sufficiently highlight basic opinion which has fashioned observers intuitive assumptions about humanitarian interventions (Hehir, 2010, p: 61). Theorectical Perspectives The lethargic attitude and lack of political motivation of the international community to respond to the crises in Darfur invariably corroborates John Mearsheimer in his renowned and stimulating write-up titled Ã¢â¬Å"The False Hope of International InstitutionÃ¢â¬ . His argument is relatively rigid because the situation in Darfur seems to favor his opinion which forwards that a failed state does not necessitate intervention from external nations except there is a relative gain (1994, p: 12). International institutions hardly ever exert any momentous authority on states actions and as such, subject itself to criticisms (Donnelly, 2000: p 132). For example, nine main decrees coupled with 21 presidential statements have been adopted since the inception of the crises in Darfur, yet, the situation has at its best remained the same and at its worse deteriorated further (Prendergast et al, 2008, p: 2). Classical realist like Mearsheimer argues that the international community is prone to failures in its Responsibility to Protect, hence, unreliable. Neo realist on the other hand, will bother less about morals, which significantly damages the idea of humanitarian intervention. Realists like E. H Carr continuously asserts that, morality are mere initiatives of the super powers to continue to enjoy perpetual domination in every possible capacity by advocating humanitarian intervention (Hehir, 2010, p: 61). That said, the realism perspective to the crisis in Darfur possibly explains the slow response of the international community. Various states constituting the Security CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s political interest invariably determines the effectiveness of any intervention. Though the regime in Washington was the first to label the crisis in Darfur Genocide, however, the mix of sanctions and its obvious interest to get information about Al-Qaeda from the administration in Khartoum has some implications to the concept of Responsibility to Protect. You read "Humanitarian Response to Darfur Crisis" in category "Essay examples" The United States constitutes a potential member of the Security Council. Thus, its political will to support Humanitarian Intervention will go a long way to ensure the success in Darfur (Brosche, 2008, p: 96). These actions have some realism in itself, in that every state should ensure its own survival. Realism as an IR theory suggest that, the well-being of a state should never be committed to any form of international covenant, and efforts of global governance through international norms should be resisted since behaviours of over-arching bodies are controlled by the interest of the super powers constituting them (Kegley, 2007: p 31). This standpoint advocates a logical agreement. If the argument by realist represents human beings as intensely flawed and naturally egocentric, then the proposal of building an ideal world is meaningless. Not in any degree can an organization be more powerful to the qualities of its constituting members. Therefore, global tranquility becomes a target outside the scope of any distinct state party. Just as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal heart desires cannot be controlled by another, so also a state fundamental ethics cannot be determined by others. Though influence can sometimes be persuasive, however, the explicit approval to give the final verdict resides within the individual states. Liberalism on the other hand advocates that international peace is possible and can be acquired through the teamwork of individual states. Though there are different variant of the liberal assumptions, however, the fundamentals of this school of thought emphasizes moral standards over the quest of power. It defines politics at the global level as contend for consensus rather than a struggle for supremacy and status. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s approach of this theory tells us that Ã¢â¬Å"peace can be perpetualÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, conflicts are absurd and going against nature. It is a simulated contrivance and not a result of some distinguished traits of human nature (Burchill et al., 2009: p 58). For this argument, the international community must identify itself in other to abolish those institutions that make conflict probable. States must also reconstruct their political structures so that democratic control and social liberties within states can protect human privileges and facilitate healthier relations amongst states. (Kegley, 2007: p 26-27). Followers of this idea will likely agree that Ã¢â¬Å"every extreme abuse of human rights deserves intervention by the whole human race falling under the international community for humanitarian purposesÃ¢â¬ (Annan, 2004). Since NATOÃ¢â¬â¢s interventions in Bosnia and Kosovo in 1995 and 1999 respectively were considered a relative success by some, then this approach possibly explains the reactions of some commentators as regards to the crisis in Darfur and subsequently, identifies itself with the norm of humanitarian intervention (Miller, 2010, p: 150). International Community Response in Darfur: A failure to intervene The ineffective action in Rwanda makes it difficult to find who absolutely defies intervention in the twentieth century. Though several bias still exist among different commentators especially when interventions involves military actions, however, projections of success in a deteriorating instance may theoretically rationalize humanitarian intervention (Abbott, 2005, p: 15). There is a general support, if not total concurrence which substantiate humanitarian interventions whenever there exist a gross breach of human welfare. However, who takes charge of intervention and who dictates when to do so appear to be a major concern (Pattison, 2010, p: 2). The UN has been the platform from which the global affair of human rights transpires. It was the UN that first launched international models that protects the rights of individuals and groups enclosed in the UN Charter (United Nations, 1948). Consequently, the UN is usually reprimanded whenever there is a case of substantial human rights infringement. There is no better accountability for this judgment other than its recognition as the most universal entity whose objective accommodates every nation state as much as possible. The obscurity associated with humanitarian intervention generally is that, it is very expanse in scope and as such commits it to several interpretation and criticisms from one state to another and even among individuals. To clarify the unclearness in the Human Rights Documents, 18 Human Rights expert were elected to deal with such contention (OHCHR, 1996). In the final ordeal of clarification, the UN Security Council reserves the right to decide if the circumstance necessitates intervention by them or any other party. However, implementing these laws in most cases has been quite difficult. For example, MilosevicÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecution process was a drama as the massacre in Bosnia was subjected to several interpretations and criticisms (PPU, 1995). In the occurrence of similar situations involving crimes against humanity, especially when a state which is meant to ensure the welfare of its citizens ridiculously turn around and becomes a major threat to its own people like that which is presently experienced in Libya, there exist a structure to be adopted titled Ã¢â¬Å"Procedure 1503Ã¢â¬ . This structure named after the decree of the UN Commission on Human Rights aims to address consistent patterns of gross, constant and evident contravention of all human rights reported by individuals or non-governmental groups (OHCHR, 2007). Even with existence of this structure and several others like Human Rights Committee that were primarily established to ensure that justified humanitarian interventions takes place without a self interest agenda, several disputation still prevails. It was on this note that, the UN Security Council facilitated the establishment of an authority called the Ã¢â¬Å"International Criminal CourtÃ¢â¬ in 2002 t o deal with concerns of human rights breach prior to, or subsequently in conjunction with the Human Rights Committee, the UN and other key international bodies (CICC, 2002). Despite the opposition faced by this court at it conception by three strong members of the security council namely, the US, Russia and China, the birth of this institute brought about commendable results within it capacity. As regards to the fundamental Human Rights, this institute generated some vital agreements which are enclosed in the ICC fact sheet 1 to administer a positive intention channelled towards protecting, upholding and promotion of human welfare (AI, 2004). Evidently, the UN as the most represented platform within the international community has in various capacity demonstrated that there is an objective of human security to be achieved by prioritizing humanitarian welfare. However, one factor peculiar to the UN is the practice of an odd habit of Ã¢â¬Å"barking without bitingÃ¢â¬ . This attitude has been needlessly prevalent that belligerents no longer regard the regulations of the international community as plausible (Brosche, 2008, p: 103). For example, the sanction authorized against the government of Sudan under the 1591 Resolution of the Security Council was greatly undermined, thus, confirming KhartoumÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction that the Security Council is deficient of a strong political determination in the event of a mass killing (Prendergast et al, 2008, p: 6). If I would give my opinion on this toothless bite attitude exemplified by the international community, it will be that of a disappointment. Allowing these tolls of death and then prosecuting the perpetrators several years later is not good enough, preventing crimes against humanity by pre-emption or prompt intervention is not too much. Just like the case of Rwanda, the Darfur crisis was quite speculative. Several NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s like Amnesty International, Medecins Sans Frontieres and the International Crisis Group signalled the world concerning the up-rising catastrophe in Darfur sometimes in February, 2003 (AI, 2003, p:1). As most pessimists would have envisage, the dawdling stimulus of the international community and a misplaced priority to conclude the North-South peace agreement in Sudan defiled every necessary pre-emptive action that would have prevented the bloodsheds (HCIDC, 2005, p: 17). Though the Security Council adopted Resolution 1556 of Chapter V11 of the UN Charter which demanded the Sudanese government to disarm the Janjaweed Militia and prosecute its leaders accordingly. Regrettably, the lack of enforcement mechanism coupled with de-motivated political will pointed out the shortcomings of every party that represents the international community (Prendergast et al, 2008, p: 4). Sadly, several years afte r the fatal misery was set in motion, the crises in Darfur still remains a failure of the international community who failed to enforce every strategic steps channelled towards promoting human security in a state that calls for emergency. The discourse of humanitarian intervention invariably summons a R2P. Declaring that the international community has the right to intervene in the affairs of another state is such a huge claim to make (Barnett, 2003, p: 174). However, for the sake of humanity, the international community reserves an ethical motive to preserve and protect the right of the vulnerable through pre-emption and intervention in failed states. Responsibility to Protect The inability of the international community to act proactively in response to the diversified occurrences of mass contravention of human rights witnessed in the post Cold War, and more exclusively in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, incited Kofi Annan who was the UN Secretary General to summon the states to come to a resolution regarding the issue of state sovereignty and humanitarian intervention. This action was triggered after the 1999 NATOÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in Kosovo. The supporting argument that drives the objective of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty set up by the Canadian Government was that of a R2P. It forwards that, in an event of a state failure to cater for the wellbeing of its people, the international community automatically assumes the R2P in all necessary capacity without necessarily seeking the consent of the host state (Hehir, 2010, p: 249). The definition of sovereignty as outlined in the UN Charter makes it clear that every states reserves a constrained and a regulated right and therefore, entitled to a code of non-interference in it internal matters by external bodies (ICISS, 2001, p:10). However, the ICISS report modified sovereignty from control to sovereignty as responsibility in both domestic and foreign affairs. The term R2P presents this perspective of sovereignty like a new innovation. However, obvious discretion in the past has been in place to curtail state sovereignty which sometimes allows extension into neighbouring states that has portrayed vulnerability to avert their province from being utilised as a breed of terrorist and cross border raids (ICISS, 2001, p:12). To mention just a few is the UN as a whole, the Geneva Conventions, and the Security Council. These bodies have illustrated several actions which limit the sovereignty of a state such as outright sanctions and infrequent interventions e.g. the War in Korea in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. That said, it can be suggested that the ICISS modified version of sovereignty is basically, placing a name on an idea that has pragmatically existed and at the same time impelling force of strength since the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. This Ã¢â¬ËnewÃ¢â¬â¢ idea of sovereignty as drawn by the ICISS smoothens out the R2P. Emphasis is placed on the commitment to shield those whose states have failed to protect rather than the responsibility to intervene. In this context, the sole R2P resides within the state. However, the forthcoming rationale in question suggest intervention for the sake of humanity and supports the involvement of military capabilities in deteriorating circumstances, especially when major wreck is targeted towards the civilians and the host state is considered as unwilling, incapacitated or the main perpetrator of the harm itself (ICISS, 2001, p:16). Just like we see in Darfur, the R2P was not readily assumed by the international community. While it was clear that human security was at stake in Darfur, the Security Council was not disposed to adopt military capabilities. Instead of authorizing the intervention with all necessary means as stated in the ICISS document, the Security Council further contradict the norms of the R2P by indicating to function with the terms of the Sudanese Government (Hehir, 2010, p: 249). However, this does not imply that the international community has lost all of its authority or become impaired. Perhaps, it is quite disappointing that the situation in the Darfur region received much awareness; yet, the international community response remains arguably futile (Hehir, 2010, p: 255). While the USA and the UK invoked a bill of legitimacy by invading Iraq and Afghanistan, they have consequently undermined their standings as norms carriers by avoiding their R2P the Darfuris. (Bellamy, 2005, p: 32). Eviden tly, the situation in Darfur reveals clearly, conflicting national interest with political motivation. Even if benevolence was the hallmark of every intervention, the crisis in Darfur suggests that there is no certification that states will act accordingly. Conclusion One big lesson to learnt from the last century is that massive violations of human rights is likely to re-occur except there is a mechanism is put in place to prevent its occurrence. Humanitarian intervention has some controversial stance; hence human security remains difficult to deal with. Not uncontested, the R2P seems like a better solution if objectively employed. However, a shift in the cultural norms of the political chiefs will do a lot of good to the concept. States need to accept limitation on their sovereignty and also to intervene prospectively without exhibiting any form of self interest. Achieving a clear humanitarian objective is more than a mere aspiration. It is essentially crucial and eventually rewarding. Just like the case of Rwanda, the civilians in Darfur deserved protection and could only rely on a third party aid. Promising affirmative statements needs to be put into action to prevent further damage to humanity. Judging from the situation in Darfur, it doesnÃ¢ â¬â¢t seem that the international community has a proper mechanism to combat humanitarian calamity. And just like the shocking Genocide in Rwanda a couple of years back, the people of Darfur found themselves in another atmosphere of disaster confirming that nothing can be done, except there is a political motivation impelling for it. How to cite Humanitarian Response to Darfur Crisis, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
, Research Paper Lockie Leonard and Lex and Rory English Lockie Leonard and the movie Lex and Rory promote the same issues as each other, particularly refering male/female relationships. The issues are showed otherwise. The adult female is the 1 who is pressured into holding a sexual relationship. In this instance it is the male who is pressured into holding a sexual relationship. As this happens different positions, feelings and emotions are shown by the manner they deal with the picks they make. Both Lex and Rory are presented as peculiar characters. Lockie is shown as a free adolescent, he is non tied down and is able to make what he wants. He is merely larning about sex and you need to cognize. It s clip we thought about sex said his Dendranthema grandifloruom. This already shows that Lockie is non ready for a sexually involved relationship. He is the typical stereotyped school male child who is in changeless problem with school instructors. We will write a custom essay sample on Lockie Leonard And Lex And Rory Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Outside, acquire out of my room before I tear your caput off and utilize for a chalkboard dust storm. Yelled his instructor. Lex on the other manus is a boy missing ego assurance and has a negative mentality on life. He is classed as a swot because he surveies and takes notice of his hereafter planning. Girls are his job. He is scared of communicating and contact. This is one of his chief frights, particularly speaking. In peculiar speaking to one miss called Dai. Due to this non many people pay attending to him except his one and merely true friend Rory. Lex is the type of individual who is afraid to do the first move, but holding a friend like Rory it starts to go easier. Lockie doesn T alteration himself to do other people feel happy. He likes who he is and believes in himself. Lockie doesn T alteration for people. He feels that people have to wish him for who he is and non for who they want him to be. Lockie doesn T let his popularity come over him. He will non fulfill anyone, if that is non what he wants to make. Lockie is his ain individual he is the lone individual who takes control of his organic structure and head. Lex has jobs with get bying with who he is. He feels that misss won Ts like him because he is noticed as a swot. He tries to alter who he is to go a better presented individual. Lex tries to construct himself into person he isn T and he knows that and finds it difficult to get by with. He begins his relationship with Dai by moving as an anon. phone company because of his fright of misss. Lex feels that this is what girls expect of him, to move cool and insouciant. In fact in this instance it is different. Vicki expects much more of Lockie than what Dai expects of Lex. Vicki expects Lockie to be sexually active, but because Lockie is merely a adolescent he takes that into consideration. Vicki tries to demur this with great trouble, as he tells her that he doesn T want their relationship to work that manner. Her lingua snaking across his tegument, and something broke in him. It was excessively much. He liked her, loved her, but this it seemed to hotfoot. Lockie doesn T seem to wish to travel excessively far. He doesn T privation to hotfoot into anything. If Lockie doesn T want to make something so Vicki thinks he s scared. Lockie admits to what he s afraid of. It s love Lockie. You re scared of love said Vicki. Sexual activity. Yeah I am scared of sex alright. He is willing to state the truth and allow remarks be made of him. You think I am loose Don T you? If you were a miss so they would name you cold said Vicki. She thinks Lockie is excessively frightened of love and sex. She wants him excessively live up to her criterions and non be scared of sex. Vicki says I need a buss to Lockie. He a nswers Not me This presents that he is non interested in that scene. It says that Vicki came and sat on his articulatio genus, She put her weaponries around him and looked into his eyes. She wants this excessively be a particular minute, and Lockie is prepared to make so but that is all. Vicki force per unit area Lockie into holding a sexual relationship but Lockie won t allow his head be changed. Dai is wholly different to Vicki. She expects no sexual relationship between the two, merely a happy and friendly 1. She merely wants him for herself. His ain individual, free of head, and non seeking to be person he isn t. When they are speaking on the telephone Dai wants him to come and speak to her in individual. Lex is scared of what she will believe of this. Dai really negotiations to him about personalities and non moving, to be person you are non. Dai wants Lex to be able to speak to him and to show their feelings and jobs with each other. Dai merely expects one thing of Lex and that is to be his ain individual and to experience free around. She is prepared to state him her jobs and frights cognizing that no opinion will be made. When they are on the phone they talk to each other about people altering themselves for others. Dai is prepared to assist Lex get the better of his fright. Lockie out does Vicki and she wants a sexual relationship. At this point in the fresh Lockie starts to experience uncomfortable. He realizes that he does non desire to be in a state of affairs when the effects are really serious. In this instance he notices that Vicki could go pregnant and he feels that he can non experience that place. He still wants to be a free adolescent. Vicki says in the novel that she doesn T privation childs, this evidently shows that holding an sexual relationship gestation may happen. Not merely gestation but many other serious effects. Vicki finds it difficult non to hold a relationship if it s non sexual. She can t accept their relationship as merely friends. It has to be more involved. Lockie knows that he is non old plenty or prepared plenty to command this state of affairs. Equally good as allowing her know there is no sexual relationship at all. It says They went back to their motorcycles, sudating, breathless, breathless and checking themselves express joying with his brother. This merely shows how happy Lockie is after holding this trouble with Vicki. Him siting about on his motorcycle shows that he is still immature in the bosom. Lex merely has to do two determinations. One is that he has to acknowledge to Dai who he is and to get the better of his fright. Making this helps him to be himself. That is the other determination he should do, to cognize who he is merely every bit good as anybody and that Dai will accept him for who he is. At the terminal of the movie Dai does accept him for himself even though he is classified as a swot. Lex, Rory, Dai and her friend thrust off together in a auto. They are esteeming each other and affecting themselves in a relationship. In life we frequently have to do determinations and normally there is some type of a effect after making this. The Novel Lockie Leonard merely goes to demo that adolescents shouldn t haste into anything, they are still immature and can t face sexual relationships and the effects it brings along. In the movie Lex and Rory it helps people to understand that it is all right to be themselves. Not to worry what other people are believing, wear T travel populating up to other people s criterions. Peoples have to larn to accept you for who you are non what they want you to be. Both texts challenge traditional versions of being a adult male. They promote the thought that you do non hold to accept the force per unit area to hold to the traditional image.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
How to Write A Ph.D. Thesis How to Write A Ph.D. Thesis Writing a Ph.D. thesis or dissertation takes time and energy. The process of conceptualizing, designing, developing, and the final presentation of the work requires students to devote their undivided attention to be able to complete the study on time, not to mention having to gain the approval of the examiners. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re nearing the finish line of your doctorate and youÃ¢â¬â¢re currently at the initial stages of your dissertation, here are some helpful suggestions for writing your doctoral thesis. Choosing A Topic Choose a topic of interest that coincide with your programÃ¢â¬â¢s area of expertise or interest. In most cases, graduate students develop their studies around a specific question that their programs have emphasized and proceed to work with supervisors in the faculty who possess the technical knowledge and expertise in those areas. If you are given a free hand to determine your focus, you will be expected to explore diverse themes related to your discipline before zeroing in on a final direction. Here are a few tips to consider during topic ideation: Identify Ã¢â¬Å"hot issues.Ã¢â¬ Bounce off ideas with your research supervisor and determine the key topics or pressing issues in your field. Widen your knowledge by reading up on the latest studies, published journals, academic case studies, annual reports, news articles, or data summaries around your topic. Journal your ideas. Write down your thoughts and discoveries so you can revisit, modify, or change them when needed. This will help you to focus your thoughts and keep track of ideas to develop and that may be important in improving your theme. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t seek a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ topic. Some students might fall in the trap of overthinking their research topic. If you ever stall out, get in contact with your supervisor and get expert advice. Consult a faculty member. The Graduate School of the University of British Columbia suggests that researchers familiarize the specializations of individual faculty members in their graduate program. This helps you know if these members are the right fit for your research supervisory committee. Developing Your Topic As you develop your research topic, consider your career goals after earning your doctorate. A graduate student thatÃ¢â¬â¢s worth their salt uses their dissertation to define the trajectory of their career path after university. Choose a topic that not only resonates with your interests and that of your program but also propels your career forward. Consider the following questions when developing your topic: Can the question sustain your interest and enthusiasm? Are there solutions to the problem? Could these lead to other problems worth researching? Can it make an original contribution to the field? Can you deliver the promise of the research? Drafting Your Research Proposal Once youÃ¢â¬â¢re sure of your topic, the next step is to draft your research proposal. A proposal must detail the first few chapters and the core sections of the dissertation. It must include the following parts (in order): Statement of the Problem (also called Background Information) Review of Related Literature (RRL) Planned Research Method Here are some additional helpful suggestions for focusing and writing your research proposal: Read proposals from other researchers. This will help you get a general idea of how a finished proposal should be. Ask for one exemplary paper from your field of study. Take note of: How the proposal was organized The types of headings used The level of clarity and specificity The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s breadth of knowledge on the subject Write a quality Review of Literature. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until the dissertation proper to prepare for this essential chapter. Your RRL should cover two arguments: Why your research is needed The essence of your methodology in answering the question raised Allocate sufficient time to develop your arguments. The longer you work on your RRL, the more time you have to locate resources, and the better a literature review you can produce. Archive all relevant resource materials. Make sure to organize them according to sections, arrange them in sequential order, and copy all bibliographic citations. This will come in handy when you need to reference a specific piece for your bibliography. Zero in on one area. Put a laser focus on your topic. Devote enough time to create specific and definite arguments for your research. Decide on a proposal title. A carefully considered title helps your readers immediately understand your research at a glance. Steer clear of confusing or vague language, and put the essential words at the beginning of your title. It can be useful to include keywords that will aid other researchers to find your work. The success of your proposal lies in the quality of your project and how well your presentation is on paper. If you need assistance writing your proposal, there are many proposal writers in Toronto who can guide you through the process. Defining The Scope Of Your Research To gain clarity and create a defined structure, narrow the scope of your research. Defining what you will and will not tackle should be discussed in your proposal. As you refine your scope, consider these points: Choose your methodology judiciously. Your methodology is one of the vital elements that will set the structure of your research. Consider methods used in your field and single out processes that your program and supervisory committee support. Your research supervisor will discuss some methodological questions with you as you develop your proposal. Choose a qualified and supportive supervisory committee. The committee you will work with will play a significant role in the success of your research. Select committee members that are not only experts in the field, but are willing to work with you towards your goal. They should be a source of guidance and encouragement for your labours. Be as open and objective as possible when receiving criticism from your committee. Meet with your committee as often as needed. It is during these meetings that you can thoroughly discuss your proposal and set goals and procedures. Writing Your Dissertation Writing is a vital skill that you need to hone early in the process. Use your proposal as your guide. Write in a way that reflects what you said you would accomplish in your methodology. Do the same for the Statement of the Problem and your RRL. Write clearly; avoid ambiguity. Have a list of keywords that are important to your research and use them throughout your dissertation. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t alternate between words or phrases when youÃ¢â¬â¢re referring to only one thing. This will help keep your meaning clear to your readers. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to write your paper in sequence (i.e. from the first chapter to the end); in fact, it is usually best to not write the introduction until the paper is completed. Ã Start with the parts youÃ¢â¬â¢re most comfortable with, and work from there. During revisions, you can rearrange sections to best support your arguments and present your evidence. Here are a few more tips for writing your dissertation: Plan a dissertation structure carefully with your supervisor. Create rough drafts as you go, and refine them as your topic becomes more focused. Create a filing system to easily track relevant results as you write each chapter. Use a reference manager to keep track of your references and notes. Back up your work. Make a digital backup of all the key parts of manual records, logbooks, or diaries youÃ¢â¬â¢ve used. Writing a dissertation can be challenging as you work toward completion. However, with the right guidance and effort, you can complete this undertaking and earn that doctorate youÃ¢â¬â¢ve worked hard for. If you need help in writing your dissertation, you can also get a professional writing service to make the process easier. is here to be your partners in this endeavour. We offer comprehensive dissertation/thesis services for advanced level students in the GTA. Contact us to get started with your project.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Electron Capture Definition Electron capture is a type of radioactive decay where the nucleus of an atom absorbs a K or L shell electron and converts a proton into a neutron. This process reduces the atomic number by 1 and emits gamma radiation or an x-ray and a neutrino.The decay scheme for electron capture is:ZXA e- Ã¢â â ZYA-1 Ã ½ Ã ³whereZ is the atomic massA is atomic numberX is the parent elementY is daughter elemente- is an electronÃ ½ is a neutrinoÃ ³ is a gamma photon Also Known As: EC, K-capture (if K shell electron is captured), L-capture (if L shell electron is captured) Example Nitrogen-13 decays to Carbon-13 by electron capture.13N7 e- Ã¢â â 13C6 Ã ½ Ã ³ History Gian-Carlo Wick proposed the theory of electron capture in 1934. Luis Alvarez was the first to observe K-electron capture in the isotope vanadium-48. Alvarez reported his observation in Physical Review in 1937.